Tests zu Ihrem logischen Denken und Ihrer Abstraktionsfähigkeit gehören zum sog. Intelligenztest. Die Personalverantwortlichen versuchen zu ermitteln, ob Sie . Analytisches Denken gehört mittlerweile zu den wichtigsten Schlüsselqualifikationen, die in vielen Berufen gefragt sind, v.a. aber in der IT- und Bankenbranche. Unser Selbsttest ermöglicht es Ihnen, Ihre Kompetenzen im analytischen Denken Ähnlichkeiten handelt es sich aber nicht um einen Intelligenz- oder IQ-Test.
Analytical test elements are often designed as a test strip, which essentially consist of an elongated support, that is, a support layer, for example of plastic material and mounted thereon detection layers as test fields.
However, there are also known analytical test elements which are designed as square or rectangular plates. Analytical test elements of the type described above are known for example from the Europeanized rule Patent 0,, The blister is formed of rigid but deformable plastic that it has a curved surface in which one or more inwardly directed top, fixed indentations are formed.
When external pressure on these acute invaginations the opposite blister wall is pierced and be in a blister-sensitive liquid exits. In contact with the absorbent layer, the liquid is absorbed by this layer and propagates therein by capillary force from.
Die besondere Form des Blisters ist nur relativ aufwendig herzustellen. The particular shape of the blister is relatively expensive to produce.
In addition, the entire preparation of such fluid-filled blister is only intermittently possible because only the shaping must take place by means of injection molding or deep-drawing process, then filled with liquid and finally with a pierceable foil liquid-tight seals must be ver.
The disadvantages of the prior art are overcome by the invention as characterized in more detail in the patent claims. Accordingly, subject of the invention is an analytical test element containing on a support absorbent material with a sample application and detection zone as well as a liquid-filled blister, wherein the support has a recess in the support surface.
This is a section shaped so that during bending of the support there is formed a peak, by which the blister can be opened such that liquid emerges and comes into contact with the absorbent material.
The invention also provides a process for producing such a analy tables test element. For this purpose, is applied to a layer of flexible but nevertheless stiff material which has cuts side by side, absorbent material and a continuous strip of liquid-filled blisters.
In the continuous band, the individual blisters are separated by transverse welding seams. The tape is applied to the layer made of flexible but nevertheless stiff material, that in each case comes to lie above a cut within the support surface, a located between two transverse welds blister.
From closing individual analytical test elements are formed by cutting the bendable but stiff layer along the transverse welding seams in the blister band.
Finally, the invention also provides a process for determining an analyte by an analytical test element according to the invention.
For this purpose, a sample in Kon clock is contacted with the sample application zone, the support layer is bent and opened with the resulting tip of the liquid-filled blisters.
Leaking fluid contacts the sample. The detection of the analyte to be determined is then carried out either in the sample application zone itself or in a detection zone into which the liquid is transported.
An essential component of the analytical test element of the invention is the carrier. He must on the one hand be so stiff that it can function elements, essentially carrying the absorbent material with a sample application and detection zone as well as the liquid-filled blisters and the user handle the analytical test element.
On the other hand, the carrier must be able to be bent so that there arises a tip from the incision, which must be as rigid and strong in turn that the liquid-filled blister can be opened.
For this particular plastic materials are suitable, which can be bent so-at the incision site that the necessary tip is exposed.
Corresponding polyester, polystyrene or polyamide films have proven to be advantageous for this. In order to facilitate the bending of the beam in the desired location, there may be provided see a predetermined bending point.
This can for example consist of a correspondingly thinner material cross-section or it may be attached lateral notches that facilitate the bending of the support at a predetermined location.
The incision in the support surface is preferably V-shaped, so that upon bending of the carrier along a line through the upper leg of the V peak arises.
For example, also W- shaped cuts are possible, two peaks caused by the bending of the carrier when, with which the blister can be opened.
For this purpose the blister may be directly over the incision on the support surface and the absorbent material with a sample application and detection zone can be arranged next to it, so that escaping liquid is absorbed by the absorbent material during opening of the blister and the blister is located over the incision site of the carrier on arranged between blister and supporting the absorbent material, so that the exposed during bending of the support tip comes through the absorbent material through the blister in contact and this opens.
The bibulous material may have in the place of the notch in the support surface, a recess in the latter case, or it may also be arranged without such a recess on the support.
If there is no recess in the absorbent material is present, it must be such that it can be pierced during bending of the support from the exposed tip so that the tip can also open the blister located on the absorbent material.
As absorbent materials in principle all those in question, which generally in so-called "dry testing" can be used for fluid intake.
Advantageous for this purpose, for example membranes have proven. But very particularly preferably fibrous, absorbent matrix materials such as fleeces, woven or knitted fabric are.
Vliese sind ganz besonders bevorzugt. Nonwovens are particularly preferred. The fibrous matrix materials may also viscose and polyvinyl alcohol glass, cellulose fibers, polyester fibers, however.
Fleece materials containing meltable copolyester addition to glass fibers, polyester fibers, polyamide fibers, cellulose fibers or cellulose derivative fibers such as are described in the European patent application , can also be advantageous in the invention analytical test element is set to be.
Papiere, wie beispielsweise Teebeutelpapier, sind ebenfalls gut einsetzbar. Papers such as tea bag paper, are also well suited for use. When blisters all liquid-filled elements can be used in principle, that can be opened with a sharp object as it arises during bending of the support of analytical rule test element according to the invention.
Advantageously for this purpose, such elements have proved to involve the liquid with a thin skin of metal, plastic or plastic-coated metal.
According to the invention particularly preferably those blisters which are made of a plastic-coated thin metal sheet, preferably made of aluminum.
Particularly preferred for preparing such blister the lateral edges of a plastic-coated metal foil for example, are thermally welded together so as to form a plastics coated metal tube.
By a thermal cross sealing, that is, thermal seal transverse to the longitudinal direction of the tube, a sealed container downwards is provided, can be filled from above through the tube opening into the liquid.
If desired, these blisters can then be isolated or at a later time by cutting the band along the transverse welds.
This not put the pressure of freige during bending of the support of fluid-filled blisters tip can dodge, he must either manually, be held, for example, a finger, or by design measures.
For this purpose the blister may, for example, long ent its transverse welds, are mounted within the test element by opening the blister on the carrier parallel to the longitudinal direction of the test element and thus along the liquid transport.
Such an attachment is possible for example by means of double-sided tape. Vorzugsweise erfolgt diese Befestigung mit Schmelzkleberstreifen.
Preferably, this attachment is carried out with hot-melt adhesive strips. In a very particularly preferred embodiment of the blister is attached not only to the two longitudinal sides of the test element, but also in the liquid transport direction opposite side of the test element.
Upon opening of the blister is so added, especially before geous liquid emerging from the absorbent material which is adjacent to the blister.
Another likewise effective method of installation of the blister on the analytical test element, the application of a film that covers the blister and tensioned during bending of the support firmly on the liquid-filled blister, so that it can not evade includes.
Such a film is fixed on the longitudinal sides of the support, so that the liquid transport does not interfere in the test element. In such an embodiment may under some circumstances be dispensed, the blister gene directly on the support to Fixed To.
Such a film also has a mechanical protection function, is prevented by that the blister is inadvertently opened by sharp objects.
Moreover, such a film can be used with a corresponding composition as light protection for the blister pack located in the liquid. Another effective method for retaining the blister during bending of the support of he inventive test element consists in the installation of the test element in a stable housing which sufficiently covers the blister in order both to prevent evasion of the resulting during bending top, but on the other hand bending the carrier of the test element still allowed.
Accordingly, the absorbent material can be constructed in different ways. In any case, the absorbent material must be so positioned in relation to the liquid-filled blisters that escaping liquid is absorbed by the absorbent material from the blister.
The absorbent material of the analytical test element contains min least a sample application and a detection zone.
In the simplest case of sample application and detection zone with respect to the absorbent material are identical. The corresponding zone is arranged in relation to the liquid-filled blisters that aufgabe- after the opening of the blister liquid exiting from the blister from the absorbent material of the sample and detection zone is recorded.
In this case, the bibulous material may also have one or more additional areas containing reagents necessary for the detection of the analyte to be determined.
The various zones can be included on the same absorbent material. Basically, all possible to build possible for analytical test elements, as long as the sample zone or elution center running wear zone so in conjunction with the fluid-filled blisters is that arrives when opening the blister fluid in the sample application zone and either there in identity of sample application and detection zone capable of detecting the analyte to be determined or is transported from there sample material into the detection zone, optionally via interposed further reagents containing zones.
The analytical test element of the invention is easy to manufacture. As previously written be a fluid-filled blister band is produced having recesses within the support surface on a carrier belt which is arranged next to each other, the blank during bending of the support a peak arising and already carrying the absorbent material, so positioned, placed that a blister between two transverse welding seams come to lie in each case via an incision intra-half of the support surface.
It is also important that the absorbent material is arranged in relation to the blister band, that in the liquid outlet from the blister, this is taken up by the absorbent material.
The analytical test element described is particularly easy to handle for analytical studies that require liquid. According to the invention it is sufficient when it is moved to be examined sample material in contact with the sample application zone, the support is bent and opens at the tip thus resulting in the support surface of the liquid-filled blisters.
From the blister leaked liquid, the sample contacts and leads, according to the above construction of the analytical test element according to the invention, in the sample application zone or in an hereof separate detection zone, in which the to be tested analyte is transported with the liquid to determine the for detecting the Substance.
The test sample may be solid or liquid. Sie kann auf das analy tische Testelement aufgetragen werden oder das analytische Testelement kann mit der zu un tersuchenden Probe kontaktiert werden.
It can be applied to the analy tables test element or the analytical test element can be contacted with the un to tersuchenden sample.
Thus it is possible that liquid sample is applied to the sample application zone of the analytical test element. Very particularly preferably used as elevations three webs, which are located on two opposite chamber walls and the slightly bend the analytical devices in the chamber and thus fix on the generated bending stress in its position.
The deflection must not result in damage to the analytical device or an impairment of the function of the analytical aid granted.
Furthermore, it has been found to be preferred according to the invention in that each chamber in the storage container according to the invention only one of the at least two openings of the chamber is suitable for the filling and removal of the analytical aids.
Only one of these two openings is therefore large enough to take out the analytical device therethrough or passing in order to introduce the analytical aid when filling through them into the chamber.
Below this property of the opening is to be referred to as "permeable to analytical tools. In the stock containers according to the prior art in particular EP-A 0,, and US 5,, , both the openings in the bottom surface and the openings in the top surface for the information contained in the storage container analytical aids are permeable.
When filling the storage container with analytical devices according to said prior art, a surface of the storage container is first sealed with a film and then filled a number of analytical aids in the appropriate chambers.
Finally, the still open space is also sealed with a film. This method has the disadvantages that during the filling of the chambers with the analytical devices, the first film may be injured and in that two manufacturing steps to seal the chambers are required.
In the invention preferred storage container, in which only one of the at least two openings of the chambers for the analytical aids is permeable, these disadvantages do not occur.
The risk of injury for the foil which must not be present in this process step is minimized. Furthermore, the process of sealing of the chambers by films from both opening sides can take place simultaneously.
In addition, the sealing film which is attached on the side of the storage container according to the invention, on which the impermeable to the analytical aids chamber openings are located, can not in principle be by themselves in the chamber analytical aid injured or penetrated from the inside, which the reliability of the invention storage container increases.
The removal of the analytical devices from the storage container according to the invention is carried out by pushing out the analytical aid from the chamber, preferably by means of a plunger.
For the preferred embodiment of the storage container according to the invention, in which one of the two openings of the chamber for the analytical aid is not permeable, it is preferable that this opening is permeable to a plunger which can push the analytical devices from the storage container.
Very particularly, it is preferred that each chamber contains a guide groove for the plunger. This holds the plunger and the in the chamber analytical device during the discharge operation in a precisely defined mutual positional relationship, so that a tilting or sliding past each other of the plunger and analytical tools is prevented.
Since the foils, which serve for closing the openings of the chambers of the storage container according to the invention, have to be severed for removal of the analytical aid from the chamber of this, they represent naturally a potential mechanical weak point of the storage container according to the invention.
The choice of material and thickness of the film is limited by the fact that a cutting of the sealing foil by means of the analytical device in the chamber when pressure of the plunger on the analytical device must be possible.
In addition, the analytical aid in cutting the film must not be damaged. In order to protect this sealant films, for example, when turning off of the storage container on a flat surface, it has been found according to the invention advantageous to provide protrusions on the sealed with foil faces of the storage container, which when turning off of the storage container on a flat surface a direct contact between the film and substrate prevent.
These protrusions may be configured as a circumferential thin edge web on the outer periphery of the storage container according to the invention.
As well as advantageous elevations have heraugestellt in the center of the sealed with foil faces of the storage container according to the invention.
The survey may take any form, for example ridges or a plurality of regularly distributed burls. The height of the elevation depends essentially on the thickness of the sealant film used.
In order to be effective according to the invention, the collection must have at least the thickness of the sealing film plus the thickness of a possibly present layer of adhesive for fixing the sealing film on the storage container according to the invention.
Preferably, however, the elevation protrudes at least to microns above the surface of the sealing film. Preferably, the protrusions are not covered with the sealing film, but the areas in which bumps are provided, recessed from the sealing.
Advantageously, sealing films are used in this case which have been provided on the basic body of the storage container with a corresponding recess before the application.
The application of such a sealing film naturally requires an exact positioning of the sealing film relative to the storage container main body.
To be particularly advantageous, it has been found that at least one of the faces of the inventive storage container, which is provided with a sealing film, is not flat but configured in the form of an inwardly directed cone.
Preferably, this is the area from which the analytical devices are pushed out of its chamber in the use of a plunger.
Of course, the opposite surface may include this feature, or both surfaces, which are sealed with foil. The conical shape of the surface has the advantage that the sealing foil is protected from accidental damage, as only the outer edge can rest on a flat surface.
Zudem wird die Kraft, die zum Durchtrennen der Folie erforderlich ist, durch diese Geometrie reduziert. In addition, the force required for severing of the film is reduced by this geometry.
For the recording of the storage container according to the invention in a measuring device and for the automated removal of individual analytical aids corresponding means in or on the storage container may be provided.
In a preferred embodiment of storage container according to the invention, therefore, includes a central bore into which a fitting guide pin of the measuring instrument can engage.
Further, a notch or a gear may be present in the bore or separated therefrom, to be engaged by a corresponding drive device of the meter to bring the storage container in a favored removal position.
In the central hole of the storage container in a corresponding measuring instrument, a guide pin engages which holds the storage container in the correct position for the extraction of the auxiliaries.
By the rotation of the storage container in the measuring instrument the storage container can be brought into corresponding predefined positions so that it is possible with the aid of a plunger of the meter, the test element removal and the providing of test elements for measuring operations.
Another object of the invention is a system for storing analytical devices containing a storage container according to the invention and two or more analytical devices.
The inventive system includes an inventive storage container as described above. Particularly preferably it is in the analytical devices to test elements for the analysis of liquids such.
As diagnostic test strips, or lancets, test elements which are very particularly preferred. It is of course the invention also possible to use several types of analytical devices, so for example test elements and lancets to house in their own chambers.
The inventive system may also include a compact measuring instrument, which can accept supply container according to the invention with the contained analytical devices, preferably test elements in and take out the analytical devices from the storage container is capable.
The analytical devices are thereby provided to the measuring device available to perform the desired analysis thereby. Finally, the invention is a system for storing analytical devices containing one or more storage containers according to the invention and the storage container, two or more analytical devices, wherein the storage containers are contained in a container.
For additional securing of the analytical device and the storage containers according to the invention against harmful environmental influences, in particular moisture, light and mechanical stress, that can once again in a container surrounding it, z.
This that or the storage container surrounding container may preferably include another desiccant, thus increasing the storage stability of analytical devices that are located in the inventive storage containers.
The advantages of the invention can be summarized as follows: The invention is further illustrated by the following drawings.
Die Ziffern in den Figuren bedeuten: The numbers in the figures denote: In Figure 1, a particularly preferred embodiment of the storage container according to the invention 1 , shown here for the storage of analytical test elements, in a side view.
The storage container 1 is substantially shaped like a cylindrical drum having a circular, conical tapered top surface 4 has a planar and in the substantial lower surface 8.
The top 4 is the side from which the test elements can be taken out. The bottom 8 is the side in the storage container through which a plunger for pushing out the test elements 1 can penetrate.
The storage container 1 shown is preferably made of a rigid, injection-moldable plastic, such as polyethylene or polypropylene, is manufactured.
The conically tapered upper surface 4 and the flat bottom 8 are provided to protect the contained in the storage container 1 analytical test elements with sealing films 5, These sealant films 5,11 can be bonded to the molding main body of the storage container 1 or welded.
To protect the sealing foils 5, 11 are both on the bottom 8 of the storage container 1 and on the upper side 4 projections 6.
They ensure that the sealing films 5. The sealing foils 5, 11 have in the region of the projections 6. One can clearly see a plurality of test elements chambers 3 , the star-shape around the projection 6 of the conically tapered upper surface 4 of the storage container 1 are arranged.
The test elements chambers 3 included on the top of the conical taper 4 of the storage container 1 side facing the opening to the test element removal Im Inneren der Testelementekammer 3 sind Mittel zum Fixieren des Testelementes in der Testelementekammer 3 vorgesehen.
Inside the test element chamber 3 means for fixing the test element of the test elements in chamber 3 are provided. Firstly, a narrowing 16 of the test elements chamber 3 is included, which can fix a contained in the chamber test element from two opposite sides.
On the other hand are in each test elements chamber 3 web-shaped elevations 18 in the chamber wall In addition, the chamber wall 15 contains a guide groove 17 for a tappet.
Around a central bore 10 with drive sprocket, by a projection 9 is surrounded, the openings 12 for a plunger and said opening 14 for the desiccant filling are visible in this view.
On the side of the test elements chamber 3 which faces the flat bottom 8 , an opening 12 for a ram is provided, by means of which the test elements of the test element chamber 3 can be pushed.
The openings 12 for the ram are connected to the guide grooves 17 for the plunger in conjunction. The desiccant chambers are connected via a not visible in Figure 3 with the test channel elements chambers.
The dimension of the channel is chosen so that individual desiccant particles can not pass from the desiccant chamber in the test elements chamber.
A gas exchange between desiccant chamber and test elements chamber is to ensure, of course. The cross-section illustrates in particular the position and shape of a test element chamber 3 , a desiccant chamber 7 and the central bore 10 with drive sprocket.
Furthermore, the cross-section of Figure 4 can be clearly seen how the upper side 4 of the storage container 1 is tapered conically.
Weiterhin ist ein Testelement 2 schematisch abgebildet, um dessen Lage in der Testelementekammer 3 zu verdeutlichen.
Further, a test element 2 is illustrated schematically in order to illustrate its location in the test chamber elements 3. By a plunger, which penetrates into the test elements chamber 3 through the sealing foil 11 of the bottom 8 and through the provided hole 12 , the test element 2 can move up out of the opening 13 and by the sealing film 5 of the top 4 from the storage container 1 are removed.
The test element 2 is in the storage container 1 is fixed by a constriction 16 and by web-like elevations in the chamber wall 15 in the test element chamber 3 in its position.
Inadvertent piercing of the sealing film 5 of the top of the storage container 1 is thus largely prevented.
A piercing the sealing foil 11 of the underside 8 of the storage container 1 with the test element 2 is prevented that the bottom 8 of the storage container 1 in the region of the test element chamber 3 only one opening 12 contains for a plunger which for the test element 2 is not permeable.
The central bore 10 is designed in a measuring device for receiving the storage container 1. In the central bore 10 in an appropriate measuring instrument, a guide pin engages which holds the storage container 1 in the correct position.
The elevation 6 on the conically tapered upper surface 4 of the storage container 1 may in addition to the above-described function of protecting the sealing film 5 of the upper side 4 of the storage container 1 also for stabilizing the position of the storage container 1 are used in a meter.
Die Erhebung 6 kann dort beispielsweise in eine entsprechende Vertiefung oder Aussparung eingreifen. The projection 6 can engage in a corresponding recess or cut there, for example.
At the lower edge of the central bore 10 is a drive sprocket, in which a correspondingly shaped counterpart in the use of the storage container 1 can engage into a meter and with the aid of which the storage container 1 can be rotated in the instrument.
By the rotation of the storage container 1 in the measuring instrument the storage container 1 can be brought into corresponding predefined positions so that it is possible with the aid of a plunger of the meter, the test element removal and the providing of test elements for measuring operations.
As described herein, particularly preferred embodiment of the storage container according to the invention is located diametrically opposite to each test chamber elements 3 a drying agent chamber 7 via an opening 14 with a customary drying agent, such.
As silica gel or molecular sieve can be filled. Each desiccant chamber 7 is associated with an immediately adjacent test elements chamber 3 and connected thereto via a channel which allows an exchange of air between the desiccant chamber 7 and test elements chamber 3.
In this figure, the web-like elevations 18 of the test elements chamber 3 can be seen particularly clearly in the chamber wall Je Testelementekammer 3 sind drei solcher Erhebungen vorgesehen.
It has been claimed that for complex queries OLAP cubes can produce an answer in around 0. Aggregations are built from the fact table by changing the granularity on specific dimensions and aggregating up data along these dimensions, using an aggregate function or aggregation function.
The number of possible aggregations is determined by every possible combination of dimension granularities. The combination of all possible aggregations and the base data contains the answers to every query which can be answered from the data.
Because usually there are many aggregations that can be calculated, often only a predetermined number are fully calculated; the remainder are solved on demand.
The problem of deciding which aggregations views to calculate is known as the view selection problem. View selection can be constrained by the total size of the selected set of aggregations, the time to update them from changes in the base data, or both.
The objective of view selection is typically to minimize the average time to answer OLAP queries, although some studies also minimize the update time.
View selection is NP-Complete. Some aggregation functions can be computed for the entire OLAP cube by precomputing values for each cell, and then computing the aggregation for a roll-up of cells by aggregating these aggregates, applying a divide and conquer algorithm to the multidimensional problem to compute them efficiently.
Functions that can be decomposed in this way are called decomposable aggregation functions , and include COUNT, MAX, MIN, and SUM , which can be computed for each cell and then directly aggregated; these are known as self-decomposable aggregation functions.
These latter are difficult to implement efficiently in OLAP, as they require computing the aggregate function on the base data, either computing them online slow or precomputing them for possible rollouts large space.
OLAP systems have been traditionally categorized using the following taxonomy. MOLAP stores this data in an optimized multi-dimensional array storage, rather than in a relational database.
Some MOLAP tools require the pre-computation and storage of derived data, such as consolidations — the operation known as processing. The data cube contains all the possible answers to a given range of questions.
As a result, they have a very fast response to queries. On the other hand, updating can take a long time depending on the degree of pre-computation.
Pre-computation can also lead to what is known as data explosion. Other MOLAP tools, particularly those that implement the functional database model do not pre-compute derived data but make all calculations on demand other than those that were previously requested and stored in a cache.
ROLAP works directly with relational databases and does not require pre-computation. The base data and the dimension tables are stored as relational tables and new tables are created to hold the aggregated information.
It depends on a specialized schema design. ROLAP tools do not use pre-calculated data cubes but instead pose the query to the standard relational database and its tables in order to bring back the data required to answer the question.
ROLAP tools feature the ability to ask any question because the methodology does not limit to the contents of a cube. ROLAP also has the ability to drill down to the lowest level of detail in the database.
However, since it is a database, a variety of technologies can be used to populate the database.