Im Herzen der See (Originaltitel: In the Heart of the Sea) ist ein. Harpune Verlag Vienna is publishing Herman Melville's masterpiece about the Great White Whale and his relentless pursuer Captain Ahab as a serial in Pip; Peter Sumner: Captain Gardiner. Moby Dick ist eine australische-US- amerikanisch-britische zweiteilige TV-Miniserie aus dem.
Characteristic stylistic elements of another kind are the echoes and overtones. His three most important sources, in order, are the Bible, Shakespeare, and Milton.
Another notable stylistic element are the several levels of rhetoric, the simplest of which is "a relatively straightforward expository style" that is evident of many passages in the cetological chapters, though they are "rarely sustained, and serve chiefly as transitions" between more sophisticated levels.
Examples of this are "the consistently excellent idiom" of Stubb, such as in the way he encourages the rowing crew in a rhythm of speech that suggests "the beat of the oars takes the place of the metronomic meter".
The fourth and final level of rhetoric is the composite , "a magnificent blending" of the first three and possible other elements:. The Nantucketer, he alone resides and riots on the sea; he alone, in Bible language, goes down to it in ships; to and fro ploughing it as his own special plantation.
He lives on the sea, as prairie cocks in the prairie; he hides among the waves, he climbs them as chamois hunters climb the Alps. For years he knows not the land; so that when he comes to it at last, it smells like another world, more strangely than the moon would to an Earthsman.
With the landless gull, that at sunset folds her wings and is rocked to sleep between billows; so at nightfall, the Nantucketer, out of sight of land, furls his sails, and lays him to his rest, while under his very pillow rush herds of walruses and whales.
This passage, from a chapter that Bezanson calls a comical "prose poem", blends "high and low with a relaxed assurance". Similar great passages include the "marvelous hymn to spiritual democracy" that can be found in the middle of "Knights and Squires".
The concentration only gives way to more imagery, with the "mastheads, like the tops of tall palms, were outspreadingly tufted with arms and legs".
All these images contribute their "startling energy" to the advance of the narrative. The influence of Shakespeare on the book has been analyzed by F.
Matthiessen in his study of the American Renaissance with such results that almost a half century later Bezanson still considered him "the richest critic on these matters.
Matthiessen points out that the "mere sounds, full of Leviathanism, but signifying nothing" at the end of "Cetology" Ch. That thing unsays itself. There are men From whom warm words are small indignity.
I mean not to incense thee. The pagan leopards—the unrecking and Unworshipping things, that live; and seek and give.
No reason for the torrid life they feel! Most importantly, through Shakespeare, Melville infused Moby-Dick with a power of expression he had not previously possessed.
Lawrence put it, convey something "almost superhuman or inhuman, bigger than life". The creation of Ahab, Melville biographer Leon Howard discovered, followed an observation by Coleridge in his lecture on Hamlet: Ahab seemed to have "what seems a half-wilful over-ruling morbidness at the bottom of his nature", and "all men tragically great", Melville added, "are made so through a certain morbidness ; "all mortal greatness is but disease ".
On December 30, , he signed on as a green hand for the maiden voyage of the Acushnet , planned to last for 52 months.
Its owner, Melvin O. Bradford, resembled Bildad, who signed on Ishmael, in that he was a Quaker: But the shareholders of the Acushnet were relatively wealthy, whereas the owners of the Pequod included poor widows and orphaned children.
The crew was not as heterogenous or exotic as the crew of the Pequod. Five of the crew were foreigners, four of them Portuguese, and the others were American, either at birth or naturalized.
Three black men were in the crew, two seamen and the cook. Fleece, the cook of the Pequod , was also black, so probably modeled on this Philadelphia-born William Maiden, who was 38 years old when he signed for the Acushnet.
Only 11 of the 26 original crew members completed the voyage. The others either deserted or were regularly discharged.
Starbuck, was on an earlier voyage with Captain Pease, in the early s, and was discharged at Tahiti under mysterious circumstances. Hubbard also identified the model for Pip: John Backus, a little black man added to the crew during the voyage.
Ahab seems to have had no model in real life, though his death may have been based on an actual event. Aboard were two sailors from the Nantucket who could have told him that they had seen their second mate "taken out of a whaleboat by a foul line and drowned".
Melville attended a service there shortly before he shipped out on the Acushnet , and he heard a sermon by the chaplain, year-old Reverend Enoch Mudge , who is at least in part the model for Father Mapple.
The other event was the alleged killing in the late s of the albino sperm whale Mocha Dick , in the waters off the Chilean island of Mocha.
Mocha Dick was rumored to have 20 or so harpoons in his back from other whalers, and appeared to attack ships with premeditated ferocity.
One of his battles with a whaler served as subject for an article by explorer Jeremiah N. This renowned monster, who had come off victorious in a hundred fights with his pursuers, was an old bull whale, of prodigious size and strength.
From the effect of age, or more probably from a freak of nature Significantly, Reynolds writes a first-person narration that serves as a frame for the story of a whaling captain he meets.
The captain resembles Ahab and suggests a similar symbolism and single-minded motivation in hunting this whale, in that when his crew first encounters Mocha Dick and cowers from him, the captain rallies them:.
As he drew near, with his long curved back looming occasionally above the surface of the billows, we perceived that it was white as the surf around him; and the men stared aghast at each other, as they uttered, in a suppressed tone, the terrible name of MOCHA DICK!
Mocha Dick had over encounters with whalers in the decades between and the s. He was described as being gigantic and covered in barnacles.
Although he was the most famous, Mocha Dick was not the only white whale in the sea, nor the only whale to attack hunters. Melville remarked, "Ye Gods!
What a commentator is this Ann Alexander whale. I wonder if my evil art has raised this monster. While Melville had already drawn on his different sailing experiences in his previous novels, such as Mardi , he had never focused specifically on whaling.
The 18 months he spent as an ordinary seaman aboard the whaler Acushnet in —42, and one incident in particular, now served as inspiration.
This was the first printed account of it I had ever seen. The reading of this wondrous story on the landless sea, and so close to the very latitude of the shipwreck, had a surprising effect upon me.
The book was out of print, and rare. Melville let his interest in the book be known to his father-in-law, Lemuel Shaw , whose friend in Nantucket procured an imperfect but clean copy which Shaw gave to Melville in April Melville read this copy avidly, made copious notes in it, and had it bound, keeping it in his library for the rest of his life.
Moby-Dick contains large sections—most of them narrated by Ishmael—that seemingly have nothing to do with the plot, but describe aspects of the whaling business.
Vincent, the general influence of this source is to supply the arrangement of whaling data in chapter groupings. The third book was the one Melville reviewed for the Literary World in , J.
Although the book became the standard whaling reference soon after publication, Melville satirized and parodied it on several occasions—for instance in the description of narwhales in the chapter "Cetology", where he called Scoresby "Charley Coffin" and gave his account "a humorous twist of fact": The earliest surviving mention of the composition of what became Moby-Dick   is the final paragraph of the letter Melville wrote to Richard Henry Dana, Jr.
Yet I mean to give the truth of the thing, spite of this. Some scholars have concluded that Melville composed Moby-Dick in two or even three stages.
Reasoning from a series of inconsistencies and structural developments in the final version, they hypothesize that the work he mentioned to Dana was, in the words of Lawrence Buell , a "relatively straightforward" whaling adventure, but that reading Shakespeare and his encounters with Hawthorne inspired him to rewrite it as "an epic of cosmic encyclopedic proportions".
The most positive statements are that it will be a strange sort of a book and that Melville means to give the truth of the thing, but what thing exactly is not clear.
Melville may have found the plot before writing or developed it after the writing process was underway. Considering his elaborate use of sources, "it is safe to say" that they helped him shape the narrative, its plot included.
Less than two months after mentioning the project to Dana, Melville reported in a letter of June 27 to Richard Bentley, his English publisher:.
My Dear Sir, — In the latter part of the coming autumn I shall have ready a new work; and I write you now to propose its publication in England.
Nathaniel Hawthorne and his family had moved to a small red farmhouse near Lenox, Massachusetts , at the end of March The most intense work on the book was done during the winter of —, when Melville had changed the noise of New York City for a farm in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
The move may well have delayed finishing the book. Yet, altogether, write the other way I cannot. So the product is a final hash, and all my books are botches.
The letter also reveals how Melville experienced his development from his 25th year: But I feel that I am now come to the inmost leaf of the bulb, and that shortly the flower must fall to the mould.
Theories of the composition of the book have been harpooned in three ways, first by raising objections against the use of evidence and the evidence itself.
Scholar Robert Milder sees "insufficient evidence and doubtful methodology" at work. Bezanson is not convinced that before he met Hawthorne, "Melville was not ready for the kind of book Moby-Dick became",  because in his letters from the time Melville denounces his last two "straight narratives, Redburn and White-Jacket , as two books written just for the money, and he firmly stood by Mardi as the kind of book he believed in.
His language is already "richly steeped in 17th-century mannerisms", characteristics of Moby-Dick. A third type calls upon the literary nature of passages used as evidence.
According to Milder, the cetological chapters cannot be leftovers from an earlier stage of composition and any theory that they are "will eventually founder on the stubborn meaningfulness of these chapters", because no scholar adhering to the theory has yet explained how these chapters "can bear intimate thematic relation to a symbolic story not yet conceived".
Despite all this, Buell finds the evidence that Melville changed his ambitions during writing "on the whole convincing".
Melville first proposed the English publication in a 27 June letter to Richard Bentley , London publisher of his earlier works. Thomas Tanselle explains that for these earlier books, American proof sheets had been sent to the English publisher and that publication in the United States had been held off until the work had been set in type and published in England.
This procedure was intended to provide the best though still uncertain claim for the English copyright of an American work.
The final stages of composition overlapped with the early stages of publication. Three weeks later, the typesetting was almost done, as he announced to Bentley on 20 July: Since earlier chapters were already plated when he was revising the later ones, Melville must have "felt restricted in the kinds of revisions that were feasible".
On 20 July, Melville accepted, after which Bentley drew up a contract on 13 August. He still had no American publisher, so the usual hurry about getting the English publication to precede the American was not present.
He published the book less than four weeks later. The title of a new work by Mr. Melville, in the press of Harper and Brothers, and now publishing in London by Mr.
Their slow sales had convinced Bentley that a smaller number was more realistic. The London Morning Herald on October 20 printed the earliest known review.
On 19 November, Washington received the copy to be deposited for copyright purposes. Excluding the preliminaries and the one extract, the three volumes of the English edition came to pages  and the single American volume to pages.
This list was probably drawn up by Melville himself: The edition also contains six short phrases and some 60 single words lacking in the American edition.
The British publisher hired one or more revisers who were, in the evaluation of scholar Steven Olsen-Smith, responsible for "unauthorized changes ranging from typographical errors and omissions to acts of outright censorship".
These expurgations also meant that any corrections or revisions Melville may have marked upon these passages are now lost. Obviously, the epilogue was not an afterthought supplied too late for the English edition, for it is referred to in "The Castaway": After the sheets had been sent, Melville changed the title.
After expressing his hope that Bentley would receive this change in time, Allan said that "Moby-Dick is a legitimate title for the book, being the name given to a particular whale who if I may so express myself is the hero of the volume".
The British printing of copies sold fewer than within the first four months. In , some remaining sheets were bound in a cheaper casing, and in , enough sheets were still left to issue a cheap edition in one volume.
After three years, the first edition was still available, almost copies of which were lost when a fire broke out at the firm in December In , a second printing of copies was issued, in , a third of copies, and finally in , a fourth printing of copies, which sold so slowly that no new printing was ordered.
First, British literary criticism was more sophisticated and developed than in the still young republic, with British reviewing done by "cadres of brilliant literary people"  who were "experienced critics and trenchant prose stylists",  while the United States had only "a handful of reviewers" capable enough to be called critics, and American editors and reviewers habitually echoed British opinion.
Twenty-one reviews appeared in London, and later one in Dublin. Melville himself never saw these reviews, and Parker calls it a "bitter irony" that the reception overseas was "all he could possibly have hoped for, short of a few conspicuous proclamations that the distance between him and Shakespeare was by no means immeasurable.
One of the earliest reviews, by the extremely conservative critic Henry Chorley  in the highly regarded London Athenaeum , described it as.
The idea of a connected and collected story has obviously visited and abandoned its writer again and again in the course of composition.
The style of his tale is in places disfigured by mad rather than bad English; and its catastrophe is hastily, weakly, and obscurely managed.
Melville cannot do without savages, so he makes half of his dramatis personae wild Indians, Malays, and other untamed humanities", who appeared in "an odd book, professing to be a novel; wantonly eccentric, outrageously bombastic; in places charmingly and vividly descriptive".
One problem was that since the English edition omitted the epilogue, British reviewers read a book with a first-person narrator who apparently did not survive to tell the tale.
Bentley is not explained". Other reviewers were fascinated enough with the book to accept its perceived flaws.
John Bull praised the author for making literature out of unlikely and even unattractive matter, and the Morning Post found that delight far oustripped the improbable character of events.
Some sixty reviews appeared in America, the criterion for counting as a review being more than two lines of comment. The Post deemed the price of one dollar and fifty cents far too much: The reviewer of the December New York Eclectic Magazine had actually read Moby-Dick in full, and was puzzled why the Athenaeum was so scornful of the ending.
The attack on The Whale by the Spectator was reprinted in the December New York International Magazine , which inaugurated the influence of another unfavorable review.
The author of the unsigned review in two installments, on 15 and 22 November, was later identified as publisher Evert Duyckinck.
What a book Melville has written! It gives me an idea of much greater power than his preceding ones. It hardly seemed to me that the review of it, in the Literary World, did justice to its best points.
The Transendental socialist George Ripley published a review in the New York Tribune for 22 November, in which he compared the book favorably to Mardi , because the "occasional touches of the subtle mysticism" was not carried on to excess but kept within boundaries by the solid realism of the whaling context.
Many reviewers, Parker observes, had come to the conclusion that Melville was capable of producing enjoyable romances, but they could not see in him the author of great literature.
During this time, a few critics were willing to devote time, space, and a modicum of praise to Melville and his works, or at least those that could still be fairly easily obtained or remembered.
Other works, especially the poetry, went largely forgotten. In his idiosyncratic but influential Studies in Classic American Literature , novelist, poet, and short story writer D.
Lawrence celebrated the originality and value of American authors, among them Melville. Perhaps surprisingly, Lawrence saw Moby-Dick as a work of the first order despite his using the expurgated original English edition which also lacked the epilogue.
The Modern Library brought out Moby-Dick in and the Lakeside Press in Chicago commissioned Rockwell Kent to design and illustrate a striking three-volume edition which appeared in The novel has been adapted or represented in art, film, books, cartoons, television, and more than a dozen versions in comic-book format.
American author Ralph Ellison wrote a tribute to the book in the prologue of his novel Invisible Man , where the narrator remembers a moment of truth under the influence of marijuana, and evocates a church service: American songwriter Bob Dylan elaborated on the book in his Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech of , citing the book as one of the three books that influenced him most.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 16 January For other uses, see Moby-Dick disambiguation.
List of Moby-Dick characters. Retrieved 13 December The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms 4th ed. From Puritanism to Postmodernism.
Yankee whalers in the South Seas. A Documentary Life of Herman Melville, — Harcourt, Brace, , Bercaw, "A Fine, Boisterous Something": Retrieved on 30 November Document, Drama, Dream," in John Bryant ed.
Beauty and the Book: Fine Editions and Cultural Distinction in America. Unpainted to the Last: Discussion of Moby-Dick at 6: Isle of the Cross ca Cetology Fast-Fish and Loose-Fish.
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Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Juni umIshmael discusses cetology the zoological classification and natural history of the whaleand describes the crew members. What a commentator is this Ann Alexander whale. The captain resembles Ahab and suggests a similar eurovision songcontest gewinner and jacobs punkte einlösen motivation in fruitinator online casino echtgeld this whale, in that when his crew first encounters Mocha Dick and cowers from him, the captain rallies them:. Melville biographer Andrew Delbanco calls Ahab "a brilliant personification of the very essence of fanaticism". I wonder if my evil art has raised this monster. The book is dedicated to Hawthorne, "in spielanleitung roulette of my admiration for his genius". The Pequod sails northeast toward Formosa and into the Pacific Ocean. Ahab will give the first man to sight Moby Dick a doubloona gold coin, which he nails to the mast. Nachdem das Schiff in ein kostenlos spielen downloaden Unwetter geraten ist, riskiert Ahab, der der Verfolgung Moby Dicks alles andere unterordnet, den Untergang des Sporting lisabon. The reading of this wondrous story on the landless sea, and so close to the very latitude spin palace casino online australia the shipwreck, had a surprising effect upon me.